Nutritional assessment of adult population of the Republic
The study of actual nutrition of Bashkortostan adult population using hygienic and statistical methods has been carried out. Based on the data on the nature and quantity of food consumed, the tables of the chemical composition of Russian food products and the results of own findings, nutritional and energy value of the average food set have been calculated. According to the data of the Federal State Statistics Service and the questionnaire survey of 1328 people (821 women and 507 men aged 25-60 years 1-3 groups of physical activity living in urban and rural areas), the consumption structure of basic food products (meat, eggs, potatoes, vegetable oil, sugar, bread) has been shown to be similar on the average in Russia and in the Republic of Bashkortostan, despite the presence of some specific peculiarities. People living in Bashkortostan consumed 30% more dairy products, while fish consumption was 2 fold lower, intake of fruits and vegetables reduced by 28%. When compared with rational norms, consumption of bread and sugar by Bashkortostan residents was 1.4 and 1.9 fold higher, vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood - was lower in 2.2,2.6 and 2.7 fold, respectively, which largely affects the chemical composition of the diet. The energy value of food consumed was composed of 45% of carbohydrates, 42% of fats, 13% of proteins and consisted on average of 2812±196 kcal per day among men, and 2229 ±136 kcal among women. The diet imbalance of basic foods lead to a deficiency in the diet of calcium (by 25%), magnesium (15%) and vitamin C (50%), B1 (30%), B2 (45%), A (28%). The creation of a permanent information and promotion system to educate the population about the basic principles of healthy eating, the prevention of alimentary-dependent diseases, an increase in the production of food products of mass consumption with reduced fat, sugar, salt, enriched with vitamins and minerals can be recommended as an urgent measure for improving nutrition of the Republican population.
Keywords:nutrition, food and energy value of the diet, vitamins, minerals, trace elements
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (5): 37-42. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10051. (in Russian)