The influence of the drying method for food properties and hypolidemic potential of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)
AbstractThe aim of this research was to study the influence of two drying methods: freeze-drying sublimation and dry-air drying on the selected nutritional properties and hypolipidemic potential of fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The criteria for evaluation of the food properties were the color, the morphological structure, regidratation capacity, the total level of soluble proteins, fats, polysaccharides, free amino acids and monosaccharides. Lipid-lowering potential of oyster mushroom was evaluated by the concentration of lovastatin and the level of antioxidant activity. It has been experimentally revealed that the value of optical density of hydro-alcohol extracts of dried oyster mushrooms at a wavelength of 295 nm most clearly characterized its color which intensity was almost twice less in sublimated mushrooms, than шт the sample dried by dry-air method. Histological data showed that dry-air drying lead to the destruction of the mushroom cells and to the formation of a dense layered structure. Sublimation drying preserved the ordered cell structure and provided less deformation and shrinkage of the tissues. Using X-ray microtomography it was reported that freeze-dried mushrooms had uniform pore volume distribution. Dry-air dehydration method lead to the formation of larger cavities. The average percentage of the open pores was: 29.41±0.52% (after dry-air method), 11.10±0.41% (after freeze-drying method). Respectively the number of closed pores, which reflected the true value of porosity, was 0.99±0.01 and 1.75±0.01%. Structural differences of the samples of the dry oyster mushroom combined with their unequal hydration ability. Indicator of rehydration for oyster mushroom dried by sublimation method was 5.4±0.1, and for samples obtained by dry-air method it was 3.2±0.1. Respectively the average time of maximum water absorption was 22.7±1.8 and 45.3±2.9 minutes. It was found that the freeze-drying sublimation conditions were more conducive for the preservation of the biologically active protein and polysaccharide components of oyster mushrooms and on the other hand dry-air drying method increased the nutritional value of oyster mushrooms due to the reactions of polysaccharides autohydrolysis. The number of proteins and polysaccharides of the Oyster mushrooms samples dried by dry-air method and freeze-drying method was 72.0% and 56.0% respectively. Concentrations of free amino acids and glucose in the samples dried by freeze-drying and dry-air methods were 11.60±0.31%; 175.20±6.10 mg% and 7.00±0.28%; 144.0±5.7 mg% respectively. It has been experimentally recorded that the conditions of freeze drying were optimal in terms of ensuring the preservation of the content of natural statin and the antioxidant capacity of oyster mushrooms that provided its hypolipidemic potential. The amount of lovastatin in an the freeze-dried samples was 342±9.0 mg/kg, and was significantly higher than in the samples received by dry-air method - 190±6.0 mg/kg. The level of antioxidant activity of the oyster mushrooms samples were respectively 3.83±0.02 against 2.0±0.03 mmol/100 g. The conducted researches proved that for the production of dry oyster mushroom as a potential biologically active feedstock for the functional food products with lipid-regulating directivity the choice of the drying method had a fundamental importance.
Keywords:oyster mushrooms, drying methods, food properties, functional food, hypolipidemic potential, lovastatin, antioxidant activity
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (2): 65-76.
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