The use of a specialized food product based on fermented milk whey to enhance the adaptive potential of athletes (skiers-riders)
Specialized sports nutrition is one of the most important factors in the extension of the functional potential of athletes, providing adaptive resistance to physical stress, which determines the high physical performance and prolongs athletic longevity of the athletes. The study involved 30 skiers-racers (the average age of 19.5±1.8 years). 12 skiers of the main group within 21 days consumed a specialized food product, obtained on the basis of fermented milk whey containing amino acids, several vitamins, minerals and trace elements, live culture of lactic acid bacteria: L. lactis, L. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus (1.2x108 CFU/cm3). The control group consisted of 18 skiers, those taking the placebo (food starch of the same consistency). After a course of product intake, blood level of hemoglobin increased by 6%, of leukocytes - by 10% due to an increase in the number of granulocytes by 32%, and segmented neutrophils by 16% (p<0.05), there was a tendency to increase the number of red blood cells by 7% with a significant decrease in lymphocyte count by 19%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in blood of the skiers from the comparison group increased by 41% (p<0.05), while in the athletes of the main group it decreased by 16% (p>0.05). After product intake it has been established by the method of laser Doppler flowmetry that there was a tendency to increase blood perfusion by 15%, a statistically reliable increase in the flux by 53%, which is based on the improvement of the internal mechanisms of microcirculation regulation. According to the mathematical analysis of cardiac rhythm, centralization of regulation decreased while the activity of an autonomous mechanism for controlling the work of the heart increased. The revealed functional changes ensured an increase of absolute (by 31%, p<0.05) and relative (by 33%, p<0.05) physical performance and aerobic endurance of skiers, contributed to the improvement of short-term memory. The conclusion is made about the expediency of the intake of the specialized food product to enhance the adaptive capacity of athletes under the influence of systematic physical loads.
Keywords:athletes, physical activity, physical performance, blood cells, microcirculation system, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm, short-term memory
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2017; 86 (6): 98-108. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10012.
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