Characteristics of the diet and nutritional status of workers at various industrial enterprises of the Sverdlovsk Region

Abstract

Alteration of food patterns leads to changes in nutritional status, thus contributing to the development of non-communicable diseases accounting for over a half of all causes of death of the population of our country. Poor working conditions and occupational hazards play an important role in inducing metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of joint studies conducted by two Healthy Nutrition Centers located in the cities of Yekaterinburg and Moscow was to assess the diet and nutritional status of workers at two industrial enterprises of the Sverdlovsk Region. The total of 347 unrefined copper production workers (Plant 1) and 267 iron ore miners (Plant 2) were included in the study (the average age was 45.7±0.4 and 50.4±0.6 years, respectively). The study design envisaged a study of actual nutrition by a frequency method, anthropometric indices, total body composition by bio-impedancemetry, and nutritional status biomarkers using biochemical blood indices. The workers' diet was characterized by a high energy value (more than 2,500 kcal/day) with an excess of total and saturated fats (40.7-41.0 and 15.2-15.3% by the calorie content) as well as mono- and disaccharides (19.0-21.0% by the calorie content). Vitamins C and A consumption of the iron ore miners was 78% (p<0.01) and 27% (p<0.05) lower than that of the unrefined copper production workers, respectively. High (>1.0) waist to hip ratios were estimated in 28.5% of the workers. Obesity (BMI>25.0 kg/m2) was established in 36-42% of our subjects and the fat mass excess - in 81% of them. High serum concentrations of low-density lipoproteins were measured in 28 and 35% of the workers of both plants, respectively. The metabolic syndrome was identified in 27.0% of Plant 1 workers and in 44.2% of Plant 2 miners, whereas cardiovascular diseases were diagnosed in 25.9 and 56.5% of the workers, respectively. The effect of genetic factors (rs993609 polymorphism of FTO gene and Trp64Arg polymorphism in ADRB3 gene) on the development of obesity and metabolic disorders was demonstrated.

Keywords:obesity, metabolic disorders, nutrition of workers, nutritional status

Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (1): 72-78.

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