Research of the cadmium intoxication effect on the model of vitamin-mineral deficiency in rats

Abstract

The article presents the results of the study aimed at confirmation of the effectiveness of the rats' adaptive potential reduction under conditions of cadmium salt toxic effects. The 65-days experiment was conducted in male and female Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 6 groups of 3 control and 3 experimental, 30 males and females in each. In total 360 rats were used in the experiment (180 females and 180 males). Rats of the 1st control group received a diet with optimal (75% of the standard semisyntethic diet content) dosage of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and mineral substances, Fe3+ and Mg2+, the rats of the 2nd and the 3rd control group - diets with marginal (30% for males and 28% for females) and submarginal (19% for males and 18% for females) doses of essential micronutrients. Animals of the 1-3th experimental groups received Cd2+ on the background of optimal, marginal and submarginal providing of essential micronutrients. The hematological, biochemical and morphological parameters and the antioxidant status of rats have been studied. The obtained results allowed to identify patterns of cadmium toxic effect strengthen on the background of essential nutrients reducing (in the row from optimal to submarginal). These changes showed erythrocyte and platelet blood profiles, and a set of indicators of the antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation of blood and liver. Thus, the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes - glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in rats of the 1st experimental group were on average by 23% higher than in animals of the 1st control group, the rats of the 2nd and the 3rd experimental groups by 62 and 67% higher, respectively. The content of lipid peroxidation products in blood and liver of male and female rats showed a similar trend: an increase by 5% in the 1st experimental group by 9 and 25% in the 2nd and 3rd experimental groups respectively. Thus, the modification of the diets' vitamin-mineral composition may be usedas a model of adaptive potential reduction in rats in the toxicological research of objects with unknown toxicity, in particular novel food products.

Keywords:loading test, vitamin deficiency, adaptive potential, vitamin-mineral diet composition, laboratory animals, cadmium toxic impact

Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (1): 63-71. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10007.

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