Assesment of the nutrition and antioxidant activity of biological liquids in students
Studying of quality of nutrition of students is of great importance as it is one of the major factors defining the state of health, especially during the periods of adaptation to the changing conditions of the environment and stressful situations. Stability or, on the contrary, predisposition to stressor violations is defined by numerous factors including the nutritive status of an organism. The purpose of the research was the analysis of the actual diet of the studying youth during educational process and assessment antioxidant activity of biological liquids of an organism. 74 students shared in a research: 30 young men and 44 girls. For assessment of the actual nutrition a method of the food diary within 5 days, excepting days off and holidays, has been used. It has been established that frequency of a meal at most of students was 3-4 times a day. Most of students consumed the first dishes1-2 times a week (56.7% of young men and 63.6% of girls), at the same time these dishes were absent in a diet at 13.6% of girls. The second dishes were present in the diet of all students. In both groups the average index of body weight was in limits of norm (18.5-25.0 kg/m2). At the same time body weight was reduced at 6.7% of young men and 11.4% of girls; excess body weight was revealed at 20.0% of young men and 6.8% of girls. 73.3% of young men and 81.8% of girls had normal body weight. In young men the calorie content of the diet, the protein and fat content slightly differed from the norm. At the same time, a carbohydrate imbalance was observed - an increase in the proportion of simple carbohydrates (sugars) (p≤0.05) and a decrease in the content of starch and dietary fiber (p≤0.05). In girls, protein intake was below the normal level and a similar carbohydrate imbalance was noted (p≤0.05). The content of vitamins in the diet of both boys and girls was reduced. Youngsters had a deficiency of β-carotene and vitamin C, in girls it was aggravated with vitamins B1 and B2 (p^0.05). In the diet of the surveyed, a deficiency of such minerals as calcium and magnesium was noted; in girls - potassium, phosphorus and iron in addition (p≤0.05). Excessive element in the diet was sodium. In the diet of young men the content of phosphorus and iron exceeded the norm. Thus, the analysis of the diet of students indicated a lack and imbalance in the content of both macro- and micronutrients, which was most pronounced in girls. The total antioxidant activity of biological liquids of an organism - blood serum, urine and saliva (determined by amperometric method using a system for liquid chromatography) decreased among: urine, blood serum, saliva. Blood serum of young men possessed greater antioxidant activity than in girls; while in urine the dependence was reversed. Thus, in order to increase the antioxidant status of the organism during periods of adaptation and stress, a qualitative and quantitative balance of the diet and increased consumption of antioxidants is necessary.
Keywords:students, diet, macronutrients, minerals, iron, vitamins, antioxidants
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (1): 35-43.
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